New study published in the European Sociological Review:
Children reduce how much women publish, but not men. However, having children only explains a small part of why women publish less than men.
Lutter, Mark, Martin Schröder. 2019. "Is There a Motherhood Penalty in Academia? The Gendered Effect of Children on Academic Publications in German Sociology." European Sociological Review: published Nov. 27, 2019. Link to paper.